The Mexico Reader

9780822330066: Hardback
Release Date: 16th January 2003

9780822330424: Paperback
Release Date: 16th January 2003

91 illus.

Dimensions: 156 x 235

Number of Pages: 808

Series The Latin America Readers

Duke University Press Books

The Mexico Reader

History, Culture, Politics

Hardback / £107.00
Paperback / £25.99

The Mexico Reader is a vivid introduction to muchos Méxicos—the many Mexicos, or the many varied histories and cultures that comprise contemporary Mexico. Unparalleled in scope and written for the traveler, student, and expert alike, the collection offers a comprehensive guide to the history and culture of Mexico—including its difficult, uneven modernization; the ways the country has been profoundly shaped not only by Mexicans but also by those outside its borders; and the extraordinary economic, political, and ideological power of the Roman Catholic Church. The book looks at what underlies the chronic instability, violence, and economic turmoil that have characterized periods of Mexico’s history while it also celebrates the country’s rich cultural heritage.

A diverse collection of more than eighty selections, The Mexico Reader brings together poetry, folklore, fiction, polemics, photoessays, songs, political cartoons, memoirs, satire, and scholarly writing. Many pieces are by Mexicans, and a substantial number appear for the first time in English. Works by Octavio Paz and Carlos Fuentes are included along with pieces about such well-known figures as the larger-than-life revolutionary leaders Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata; there is also a comminiqué from a more recent rebel, Subcomandante Marcos. At the same time, the book highlights the perspectives of many others—indigenous peoples, women, politicians, patriots, artists, soldiers, rebels, priests, workers, peasants, foreign diplomats, and travelers.

The Mexico Reader explores what it means to be Mexican, tracing the history of Mexico from pre-Columbian times through the country’s epic revolution (1910–17) to the present day. The materials relating to the latter half of the twentieth century focus on the contradictions and costs of postrevolutionary modernization, the rise of civil society, and the dynamic cross-cultural zone marked by the two thousand-mile Mexico-U.S. border. The editors have divided the book into several sections organized roughly in chronological order and have provided brief historical contexts for each section. They have also furnished a lengthy list of resources about Mexico, including websites and suggestions for further reading.

Acknowledgments xi
A Note on Style xiii
Introduction 1
I The Search for "Lo Mexicano"
Introduction 9
The Mexican Character / Joel Poinsett 11
The Cosmic Race / José Vasconcelos 15
The Sons of La Malinche / Octavio Paz 20
The Problem of National Culture / Guillermo Bonfil Batalla 28
Does It Mean Anything to Be Mexican? / Roger Bartra 33
Mexico City 1992 / Alma Guillermoprieto 41
Two Ranchera Songs / José Alfredo Jiménez and Cuco Sánchez 53
II Ancient Civilizations
Introduction 55
The Origins of the Aztecs / Anonymous 57
The Cost of Courage in Aztec Society / Inga Clendinnen 61
Popol Vuh / Anonymous 79
The Meaning of Maize for the Maya / J. Eric Thompson 86
Omens Foretelling the Conquest / Anonymous 92
III Conquest and Colony
Inroduction 95
The Spaniards’ Entry into Tenochtitlán / Bernal Díaz del Castillo and Hernán Cortés 97
Cortés and Montezuma / J.H. Eliott 105
The Battles of Tenochtitlán and Tlateloclo / Anonymous 109
The Spiritual Conquest, Fray Jerónimo de Mendieta 114
Why the Indians Are Dying / Alonso de Zorita 122
The Colonial Latifundio / Enrique Florescano 131
A Baroque Archbishop-Viceroy / Irving Leonard 141
On Men's Hypocrisy / Sor Juana 156
The Itching Parrot, the Priest, and the Subdelegate / José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi 160
IV Trials of the Young Republic
Introduction 169
The Siege of Guanajuato / Lucas Alamán 171
Sentiments of the Nation / José María Morelos 189
Plan of Iguala / Agustín de Iturbide 192
Women and War in Mexico / Frances Calderón de la Barca 196
The Glorious Revolution of 1844 / Guillermo Prieto 206
Décimas Dedicated to Santa Anna’s Leg / Anonymous 213
War and Finance, Mexican Style / Juan Bautista Morales 217
A Conservative Procession of Faith / The Editors of El Tiempo 220
Considerations Relating to the Political and Social Situation / Mariana Otero 226
Liberals and the Land / Luis Gonzáles y Gonzáles 239
Standard Plots and Rural Resistance / Raymond B. Craib 252
Offer to the Crown to Maximilian / Junta of Conservative Notables 263
A Letter from Mexico / Empress Carlotta 265
The Triumph of the Republic / Benito Juárez 270
Pofirio Díaz Visits Yucatán / Channing Arnold and Frederick J. Tabor Frost 273
Scenes from a Lumber Camp / B. Traven 279
President Díaz, Hero of the Americas / James Creelman 285
Gift of the Skeletons / Anonymous 292
Special Section
Mexican History in Photographs / John Mraz 297
V Revolution
Introduction 333
Land and Liberty / Ricardo Flores Magón 339
The Restoration of the Ejido / Luis Cabrera 344
Zapatistas in the Palace / Martín Luis Guzmán 351
Mexico Has Been Turned into a Hell / William O. Jenkins 357
Pancho Villa / John Reed 364
La Punitiva / Anonymous 372
Pedro Martinez / Oscar Lewis 375
Juan the Chamula / Ricardo Pozas 387
The Constitution of 1917: Articles 27 and 123 398
An Agrarian Encounter / Rosalie Evans 403
Ode to Cuanhtémoc / Carlos Pellicer 406
The Socialist ABC's / Anonymous 411
The Ballad of Valentin of the Sierra / Anonymous 418
Mexico Must Become a Nation of Institutions and Laws / Plutarco Elias Calles 421
The Formation of the Single-Party state / Carlos Fuentes 426
The Rough and Tumble Career of Pedro Crespo / Gilbert M. Joseph and Allen Wells 428
A Convention in Zacapu / Salvador Lemus Fernandez 439
The Agrarian Reform in La Laguna / Fernando Benitez 445
The Oil Expropriation / Josephus Daniels 452
Cardenas and the Masses / Arturo Anguiano 456
VI The Perils of Modernity
Introduction 461
They Gave Us the Land / Juan Rulfo 465
Mexico's Crisis / Daniel Cosio Villegas 470
Struggles of a Campesino Leader / Ruben Jaramillo 482
Art and Corruption / David Alfaro Siqueiros 492
The Two faces of Acapulco during the Golden Age / Andrew Sackett 500
Mexico / Sid Tepper and Roy C. Bennett 511
The Dark Deeds of "El Negro" Durazo / José González G. 512
The Sinking City / Joel Simon 520
Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl / Roberto Vallarino 536
Modesta Gomez / Rosario Castellanos 545
VII From the Ruins
Introduction 553
The Student Movement of 1968 / Elena Poniatowska 555
El Santo's Strange Career / Anne Rubenstein 570
After the Earthquake / Victims' Coordinating Council 579
Letters to Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas / Anonymous 591
Corazón del Rocanrol / Rubén Martínez 598
I Don't Believe Them at All / Maldita Vecindad y los Hijos del Quinto Patio 612
The COCEI of Juchitan, Oaxaca: Two Documents / Leopoldo de Gyves de la Cruz and COCEI 619
Women of Juchitan / Jeffrey W. Rubin 625
EZLN Demands at the Dialogue Table / Zapatista Army of National Liberation 638
The Long Journey from Despair to Hope / Subcomandante Marcos 646
A Tzotzil Chronicle / Marian Peres Tsu 655
Debtors' Revenge / Heather Williams 670
Mexicans Would Not Be Bought, Coerced / Wayne A. Cornelius 684
VIII The Border and Beyond
Introduction 687
Plan of San Diego / Anonymous 689
The Mexican Connection / Rudolfo Acuña 692
The Maquiladoras / William Langewiesche 698
Dompe Days / Luis Alberto Urrea 708
Pedro P., Coyote / Judith Adler Hellman 717
There's a Party Going On in Texas / Anonymous 728
Two Poems about Immigrant Life / Pat Mora and Gina Valdes 731
The Deadly Harvest of the Sierra Madre / Alan Weisman 734
Two Songs about Drug Smuggling / Salomé Guitérrez and Paulino Vargas 747
The New World Border / Guillermo Gómez-Peña 750
Suggestions for Further Reading 757
Acknowledgment of Copyrights 763
Index 773

Gilbert M. Joseph is Farnam Professor of History and Director of Latin American and Iberian Studies at Yale University. He is coeditor of Everyday Forms of State Formation: Revolution and the Negotiation of Rule in Modern Mexico and Close Encounters of Empire: Writing the Cultural History of U.S.–Latin American Relations (both published by Duke University Press).

Timothy J. Henderson is Associate Professor of History at Auburn University Montgomery. He is the author of The Worm in the Wheat: Rosalie Evans and Agrarian Struggle in the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley of Mexico, 1908–1927 (also published by Duke University Press).

”For any journey through Mexican history, politics, social movements, and popular culture, travelers should start with this fascinating collection. Expertly edited and translated, each document adds to the rich landscape and each is cogently introduced to the reader. The perfect source book for any college course on Mexico from the Aztecs and Mayas to the 21st century.”—John H. Coatsworth, Harvard University