Flooded Pasts examines a world famous yet critically underexamined event—UNESCO's International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia (1960–80)—to show how the project, its genealogy, and its aftermath not only propelled archaeology into the postwar world but also helped to "recolonize" it. In this book, William Carruthers asks how postwar decolonization took shape and what role a colonial discipline like archaeology—forged in the crucible of imperialism—played as the "new nations" asserted themselves in the face of the global Cold War.
As the Aswan High Dam became the centerpiece of Gamal Abdel Nasser's Egyptian revolution, the Nubian campaign sought to salvage and preserve ancient temples and archaeological sites from the new barrage's floodwaters. Conducted in the neighboring regions of Egyptian and Sudanese Nubia, the project built on years of Nubian archaeological work conducted under British occupation and influence. During that process, the campaign drew on the scientific racism that guided those earlier surveys, helping to consign Nubians themselves to state-led resettlement and modernization programs, even as UNESCO created a picturesque archaeological landscape fit for global media and tourist consumption.
Flooded Pasts describes how colonial archaeological and anthropological practices—and particularly their archival and documentary manifestations—created an ancient Nubia severed from the region's population. As a result, the Nubian campaign not only became fundamental to the creation of UNESCO's 1972 World Heritage Convention but also exposed questions about the goals of archaeology and heritage and whether the colonial origins of these fields will ever be overcome.
Introduction: Flooding Nubia
1. The View from the Boat
2. Documenting Nubia
3. Valuing Egyptian Nubia
4. Making Sudan Archaeological
5. Peopling Nubia
6. Nubia in the (Non-Aligned) World
7. Traces of Nubia
Conclusion: Repeopling Nubia
William Carruthers is a Leverhulme Early Career Fellow at the University of East Anglia. He is the editor of Histories of Egyptology.
[H]is refreshingly critical approach to the subject will undoubtedly transform our understanding of the UNESCO Campaign, beyond a Western Egyptological lens.
Today, as one witnesses the violence being inflicted upon modern-day Cairo (also under the guise of the state's modernization and developmental projects), with certain histories deemed insignificant and cursorily erased and others being cheaply promoted with pomp (e.g., the mummy parade; the sphinx avenue celebrations), Flooded Pasts could not be a more timely contribution.
~The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology