In Frenemies Mark L. Haas addresses policy-guiding puzzles such as: Why do international ideological enemies sometimes overcome their differences and ally against shared threats? Why, just as often, do such alliances fail?
Alliances among ideological enemies confronting a common foe, or "frenemy" alliances, are unlike coalitions among ideologically-similar states facing comparable threats. Members of frenemy alliances are perpetually torn by two powerful opposing forces. Haas shows that shared material threats push these states together while ideological differences pull them apart. Each of these competing forces has dominated the other at critical times. This difference has resulted in stable alliances among ideological enemies in some cases but the delay, dissolution, or failure of these alliances in others.
Haas examines how states' susceptibility to major domestic ideological changes and the nature of the ideological differences among countries provide the key to alliance formation or failure. This sophisticated framework is applied to a diverse range of critical historical and contemporary cases, from the failure of British and French leaders to ally with the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany in the 1930s to the likely evolution of the United States' alliance system against a rising China in the early 21st century.
In Frenemies, Haas develops a groundbreaking argument that explains the origins and durability of alliances among ideological enemies and offers policy-guiding perspectives on a subject at the core of international relations.
1. Frenemy Alliances: What Are They, and When Are They Likely to Occur?
2. An Unrealized Frenemy Alliance: Britain's and France's Failure to Ally with the Soviet Union, 1933–39
3. A Tipping-Point Frenemy Alliance: The Delay in the Formation of the Sino-American Alliance against the Soviet Union, 1972–79
4. A Breaking-Point Frenemy Alliance: The Ending of the Turkish-Israeli Alliance, 2009–10
Mark L. Haas is Professor of Political Science and Raymond J. Kelley Endowed Chair in International Relations at Duquesne University. He is author of The Ideological Origin of Great Power Politics, 1789-1989 and The Clash of Ideologies.
This insightful book shows that traditional realist approaches miss a critical dimension in many situations: ideology. Mark L. Haas (Duquesne Univ.) analyzes three situations: the failures of France and Britain to forge a defensive alliance with the USSR to counter German threats in the 1930s, the Chinese decision to open relations with their erstwhile American enemy in the 1970s, and the collapse of Turkish-Israeli security ties in 2009–10.