A history of the activism that made public spaces in American cities more accessible to women.
From the closing years of the nineteenth century, women received subtle—and not so subtle—messages that they shouldn’t be in public. Or, if they were, that they were not safe. Breaking the Gender Code tells the story of both this danger narrative and the resistance to it.
Historian Georgina Hickey investigates challenges to the code of urban gender segregation in the twentieth century, focusing on organized advocacy to make the public spaces of American cities accessible to women. She traces waves of activism from the Progressive Era, with its calls for public restrooms, safe and accessible transportation, and public accommodations, through and beyond second-wave feminism, and its focus on the creation of alternative, women-only spaces and extensive anti-violence efforts. In doing so, Hickey explores how gender segregation intertwined with other systems of social control, as well as how class, race, and sexuality shaped activists' agendas and women's experiences of urban space. Drawing connections between the vulnerability of women in public spaces, real and presumed, and contemporary debates surrounding rape culture, bathroom bills, and domestic violence, Hickey unveils both the strikingly successful and the incomplete initiatives of activists who worked to open up public space to women.
1. Right and Reason: Understandings of Women’s Presence in the Modern City
2. Building Women into the City: Infrastructure and Services in the Early Twentieth Century
3. The City and the Girl: Midcentury Consumption, Civil Rights, and (In)Visibility
4. When Girls Became Women: Confronting Exclusion and Harassment in the Long 1960s
5. The Public Is Political: Demanding Safe Streets and Neighborhoods
6. Taking Up Space and Making Place: Late-Century Institution Building
7. Privacy in Public: The (Almost) Policy Revolution
Georgina Hickey is a professor of history at the University of Michigan–Dearborn and the author of Hope and Danger in the New South City: Working Class Women and Urban Development in Atlanta, 1890–1940.
In charting women’s efforts across the nation to secure inclusion in urban public space over the long twentieth century, Georgina Hickey reveals how fundamental gender segregation was—and remains—to ‘organizing and stratifying’ American society….[G]ender segregation…’justified harassment and violence against other women,’ particularly women of color, immigrant, queer, and working-class women. This is a major contribution to both urban history and women’s, gender and sexuality studies.