- Crimmigrant Nations
Resurgent Nationalism and the Closing of Borders
Edited by Robert Koulish and Maartje van der Woude
Contributions by Ana Aliverti, Leonidas Cheliotis, Lana De Pelecijn, Steven De Ridder, Simone Durham, Helene O. Gundhus, Zeynap Kasli, Witold Klaus, Robert Koulish, Agnieszka Kubal, Dario Melossi, Alejandro Olayo-Méndez, Tony Platt, Doris Marie Provine, Rashawn Ray, Juliet Stumpf, Maartje van der Woude, Sappho Xenakis and Zeynap Yanasmayan
Published by: Fordham University Press
416 pages, 152.00 x 228.00 mm
- ISBN: 9780823287499
- Published: March 2020
As the distinction between domestic and international is increasingly blurred along with the line between internal and external borders, migrants—particularly people of color—have become emblematic of the hybrid threat both to national security and sovereignty and to safety and order inside the state. From building walls and fences, overcrowding detention facilities, and beefing up border policing and border controls, a new narrative has arrived that has migrants assume the risk for government-sponsored degradation, misery, and death. Crimmigrant Nations examines the parallel rise of anti-immigrant sentiment and right-wing populism in both the United States and Europe to offer an unprecedented look at this issue on an international level.
Beginning with the fears and concerns of immigration that predate the election of Trump, the Brexit vote, and the signing and implementation of the Schengen Agreement, Crimmigrant Nations critically analyzes nationalist state policies in countries that have criminalized migrants and categorized them as threats to national security. Highlighting a pressing and perplexing problem facing the Western world in 2020 and beyond, this collection of essays illustrates not only how anti-immigrant sentiments and nationalist discourse are on the rise in various Western liberal democracies, but also how these sentiments are being translated into punitive and cruel policies and practices that contribute to a merger of crime control and migration control with devastating effects for those falling under its reach. Mapping out how these measures are taken, the rationale behind these policies, and who is subjected to exclusion as a result of these measures, Crimmigrant Nations looks beyond the level of the local or the national to the relational dynamics between different actors on different levels and among different institutions.
Introduction: The “Problem” of Migration
Robert Koulish and Maartje van der Woude | 1
I. Border Criminologies
1 Insecurity Syndrome: The Challenges of Trump’s Carceral State
Tony Platt | 33
2 Migration, Populism, Racism: Between “Old” Italy
and “New” Europe
Dario Melossi | 50
3 The Promise of the Border: Immigration Control and Belonging
in Contemporary Britain
Ana Aliverti | 68
II. Crimmigration Under Trump
4 The Terrorism of Everyday Crime
Juliet P. Stumpf | 89
5 The Trumping of Neoliberal Penality? Trump’s Presidency and
the Rise of Nationalist Authoritarianism in the United States
Sappho Xenakis and Leonidas K. Cheliotis | 116
6 Trump v. Hawaii: Trumpeting Authoritarianism with Formalist
Analysis and Sovereign Norms
Robert Koulish | 134
7 A Path toward Nowhere: The Rise of Enforcement- Based
Doris Marie Provine | 157
8 Trump Doesn’t Tweet Dog Whistles, He Barks with the
Dogs: Crimmigration as a Racial Project through the Lens
of Trump’s Twitter
Rashawn Ray and Simone Durham | 179
9 Mirrors of Justice? Undocumented Immigrants in Courts
in the United States and Russia
Agnieszka Kubal and Alejandro Olayo- Méndez | 198
III. Shoring Up Fortress Europe
10 Euroskepticism, Nationalism, and the Securitization of Migration
in the Netherlands
Maartje van der Woude | 227
11 Sorting Out Welfare: Crimmigration Practices and Abnormal
Justice in Norway
Helene O. I. Gundhus | 249
12 The Fight against Terrorism in Belgium: Crimmigration Law
as a Counterterrorism Instrument?
Lana De Pelecijn and Steven De Ridder | 279
13 How Does Crimmigration Unfold in Poland?: Between
Securitization Introduced to Polish Migration Policy by Its
Europeanization and Polish Xenophobia
Witold Klaus | 298
14 Migration Control, Populism, and the Spectrum of
Exclusion in Turkey
Zeynep Kasli and Zeynep Yanasmayan | 315
List of Contributors | 337
Index | 341
Robert Koulish is a political scientist at the University of Maryland, Director of the MLAW Programs in the BSOS College at UMD, Joel J. Feller Research Professor in the Department of Government and Politics, and Lecturer at Law in the UMD Carey School of Law. He is the author or co-author of Immigration and American Democracy: Subverting the Rule of Law and Immigration Detention, Risk and Human Rights.
Maartje van der Woude is Professor of Law & Society at Leiden Law School in the Netherlands. She is also affiliated with the Department of Criminology and Sociology of Law at the University of Oslo and the Center for the International Comparative Study of Criminology at the University of Montreal.
Ana Aliverti is an Associate Professor of Law at the School of Law, University of Warwick. She serves on the editorial boards of Theoretical Criminology and the Howard Journal of Crime and Justice.
Leonidas K. Cheliotis is an Associate Professor of Criminology in the Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science. He is also Codirector of LSE’s Mannheim Centre for Criminology, as well as an editor and book review editor of the British Journal of Criminology.
Lana De Pelecijn is currently a Ph.D. Researcher of the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO) affiliated with the Ghent University (research group IRCP).
Steven De Ridder is currently Director of Policy Development in a local Belgium police force and former postdoctoral researcher of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium), Faculty of Law and Criminology, Criminology Department.
Simone Durham obtained both her Bachelor’s and Master’s of Arts degrees in Sociology from Morgan State University and is currently a doctoral student at the University of Maryland, College Park. Her current projects include a content analysis of politically polarized news coverage of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement and interviews with black millennials on their perceptions of BLM.
Helene O. I. Gundhus is Professor of Criminology at the University of Oslo and Professor II at the Norwegian Police University College. Her publications include Technologies of Insecurity (coedited with H. M. Lomell and H. O. Gundhus [Routledge- Cavendish, 2009]), and Moral Issues in Intelligence- Led Policing (coedited with N. Fyfe and K. V. Rønn [Routledge, 2018]).
Zeynep Kaslı is an academic researcher at the Erasmus School of Social and Behavioral Sciences at Erasmus University Rotterdam in the Netherlands. She has expertise in political sociology, sociolegal studies, migration, and citizenship with strong skills in qualitative methods and experience in quantitative research. She completed her Ph.D. in the Interdisciplinary Near and Middle Eastern Studies Program and received a Graduate Certificate in Law and Society Studies at the University of Washington, Seattle.
Witold Klaus is a professor at the Institute of Law Studies and a researcher in the Center of Migration Research at Warsaw University. He has a Ph.D. in law and is a lawyer and a criminologist. In 2009, he was awarded the Social Nobel Prize by the Ashoka Foundation.
Agnieszka Kubal is an interdisciplinary sociolegal and migration scholar with area studies interest in Central Eastern Europe and Russia. She joined the Department of Social Science at UCL from the Centre for Socio-Legal Studies and Russian and Eastern European Studies, both at the University of Oxford, where she held a research fellowship and a lectureship. She is the author of Immigration and Refugee Law in Russia (2019) and A Sociology of Justice in Russia (2018) both from Cambridge University Press.
Dario Melossi is Alma Mater Professor of the University of Bologna and Distinguished Affiliated Scholar of the Center for the Study of Law and Society (UC Berkeley). His most recent book is Crime, Punishment and Migration (Sage, 2015).
Alejandro Olayo-Méndez is currently a graduate student at the University of Oxford and is reading for a D.Phil. in International Development. He holds an M.Sc. in Migration Studies from the University of Oxford, a Master of Social Work from Loyola University Chicago, and a Master of Divinity (Theology) from Boston College.
Tony Platt is a Distinguished Affiliated Scholar at the Center for the Study of Law and Society, University of California, Berkeley. He is the author of numerous books dealing with issues of criminal justice, race, inequality, and social justice in American history, including Beyond These Walls: Rethinking Crime and Punishment in the United States (St. Martin’s, 2019).
Doris Marie Provine is Professor emerita on the Justice Studies faculty in the School of Social Transformation at Arizona State University. She is the author of Unequal under Law: Race in the War on Drugs (2007) and coauthor of Policing Immigrants: Local Law Enforcement on the Front Lines (2016), both from the University of Chicago Press.
Rashawn Ray is Associate Professor of Sociology and Executive Director of the Lab for Applied Social Science Research (LASSR) at the University of Maryland, College Park. He is also one of the editors of Contexts Magazine: Sociology for the Public.
Juliet P. Stumpf is the Robert E. Jones Professor of Advocacy and Ethics at Lewis & Clark Law School. She has published widely in leading journals and books, including a series of crimmigration articles beginning with “The Crimmigration Crisis: Immigrants, Crime, and Sovereign Power,” 56 Am. U. L. Rev. 367 (2006), and has coauthored the casebook Immigration and Citizenship: Process and Policy (8th ed. [West, 2016]).
Sappho Xenakis is a Reader in Criminology and International Relations at the School of Law, Birkbeck, University of London, where she is also a codirector of Birkbeck’s Centre for Political Economy and Institutional Studies and director of the M.Sc. program in Global Criminology. In 2018, she received the Critical Criminal Justice Scholar Award of the Critical Criminal Justice Section of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.
Zeynep Yanasmayan is a Senior Research Fellow and Coordinator of the project “The Challenges of Migration, Integration and Exclusion.” She holds a Ph.D. in Social Sciences from KU Leuven, Belgium. Before joining the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology in 2017, she worked as a research fellow at various institutions, including Humboldt University in Berlin, European University Viadrina, and the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity in Göttingen.