In the late 17th century, Italian musician and inventor Bartolomeo Cristofori developed a new musical instrument—his cembalo che fa il piano e forte, which allowed keyboard players flexible dynamic gradation. This innovation, which came to be known as the hammer-harpsichord or fortepiano grand, was slow to catch on in musical circles. However, as renowned piano historian Eva Badura-Skoda demonstrates, the instrument inspired new keyboard techniques and performance practices and was eagerly adopted by virtuosos of the age, including Scarlatti, J. S. Bach, Clementi, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Presenting a rich array of archival evidence, Badura-Skoda traces the construction and use of the fortepiano grand across the musical cultures of 18th-century Europe, providing a valuable resource for music historians, organologists, and performers.
1. Bartolomeo Cristofori
2. Giving Cristofori's nuovo cimbalo a Name: Terminology Problems throughout the Eighteenth Century
3. Domenico Scarlatti
4. New inventions in Germany, Pantalone Instruments, and Gottfried Silbermann
5. Johann Sebastian Bach and the "Piano et Forte"
6. Pianoforte Builders in Germany around 1750
7. The Generation of Bach's Older Sons
8. From Alberti, Platti, and Rutini to Eckard and the Younger Sons of Bach
9. Developments in the Second Half of the Century: Johann Andreas Stein and Sébastien Erard
10. Joseph Haydn-Wenzel and Johann Schantz, Young Mozart and Nannette Stein
11. Anton Walter and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
12. From Broadwood, Merlin, and Clementi to Beethoven
Appendix: Scipione Maffei's Article of 1711
Badura-Skoda has written a remarkable volume, the result of a lifetime of scholarly research and investigation. . . . Essential.