The Crusades and the Christian World of the East

9780812240504: Hardback
Release Date: 9th January 2008

9780812220834: Paperback
Release Date: 10th September 2009

3 illus.

Dimensions: 152 x 229

Number of Pages: 280

Series The Middle Ages Series

University of Pennsylvania Press, Inc.

The Crusades and the Christian World of the East

Rough Tolerance

In The Crusades and the Christian World of the East, Christopher MacEvitt marshals an impressive array of literary, legal, artistic, and archeological evidence to demonstrate how crusader ideology and religious difference gave rise to a mode of coexistence he calls "rough tolerance."

Hardback / £60.00
Paperback / £21.99

In the wake of Jerusalem's fall in 1099, the crusading armies of western Christians known as the Franks found themselves governing not only Muslims and Jews but also local Christians, whose culture and traditions were a world apart from their own. The crusader-occupied swaths of Syria and Palestine were home to many separate Christian communities: Greek and Syrian Orthodox, Armenians, and other sects with sharp doctrinal differences. How did these disparate groups live together under Frankish rule?

In The Crusades and the Christian World of the East, Christopher MacEvitt marshals an impressive array of literary, legal, artistic, and archeological evidence to demonstrate how crusader ideology and religious difference gave rise to a mode of coexistence he calls "rough tolerance." The twelfth-century Frankish rulers of the Levant and their Christian subjects were separated by language, religious practices, and beliefs. Yet western Christians showed little interest in such differences. Franks intermarried with local Christians and shared shrines and churches, but they did not hesitate to use military force against Christian communities. Rough tolerance was unlike other medieval modes of dealing with religious difference, and MacEvitt illuminates the factors that led to this striking divergence.

"It is commonplace to discuss the diversity of the Middle East in terms of Muslims, Jews, and Christians," MacEvitt writes, "yet even this simplifies its religious complexity." While most crusade history has focused on Christian-Muslim encounters, MacEvitt offers an often surprising account by examining the intersection of the Middle Eastern and Frankish Christian worlds during the century of the First Crusade.

Note on Transliteration and Names
Map

Introduction
The Twelfth-Century Middle East
Historiography of the Crusades
Rough Tolerance: A New Model of Religious Interaction

1 Satan Unleashed: The Christian Levant in the Eleventh Century
A Brief History of the Christian East
Contact and Knowledge Between Eastern and Western Christians

2 Close Encounters of the Ambiguous Kind: When Crusaders and Locals Meet
Responses to the First Crusade
The Franks in Edessa
Armenian Resistance

3 Images of Authority in Edessa, 1100-1150
Frankish Authority
Armenian Authority: A Response to the Franks
Edessa Under Joscelin I
Edessa and the Frankish East

4 Rough Tolerance and Ecclesiastical Ignorance
Local Christians from a Latin Perspective
Local Priests and Patriarchs in the Frankish Levant
Architecture and Liturgy
Pilgrimage

5 The Legal and Social Status of Local Inhabitants in the Frankish Levant
Historiography
The Peasantry
Local Rural Landowners and Administrators

6 The Price of Unity: Ecumenical Negotiations and the End of Rough Tolerance
Manuel I Komnenos and the Mediterranean World
Ecumenical Dialogue with the Armenian Church
Jacobite Patriarch Michael and the Quest for Legitimacy
Cultural Consequences of Ecumenical Negotiation
Conclusion

Notes
Bibliography
Index
Acknowledgments

Christopher MacEvitt teaches religion at Dartmouth College.

"A superb contribution to understanding the complex interaction of local and occupying Christian populations during the crusading era. . . . Highly recommended."—Choice

"An important book, which shows that the Western settlers did not remain a foreign presence but became fully integrated in the society of the Levant."—TLS

"A first-rate piece of scholarship that will have a major impact on the field of crusade studies and medieval history in general. . . . A must for all historians of the Latin East and those interested in relations between the churches."—Jonathan Riley-Smith, author of The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading