Intrastate conflicts, such as civil wars and ethnic confrontations, are the predominant form of organized violence in the world today. But internal strife can destabilize entire regions, drawing in people living beyond state borders—particularly those who share ideology, ethnicity, or kinship with one of the groups involved. These nonstate actors may not be enlisted in formal armies or political parties, but they can play a significant role in a conflict. For example, when foreign volunteers forge alliances with domestic groups, they tend to attract other foreign interventions and may incite the state to centralize its power. Diasporan populations, depending on their connection to their homeland, might engage politically through financial support or overt aggression, either exacerbating or mitigating the conflict.
Nonstate Actors in Intrastate Conflicts takes an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the ways external individuals and groups become entangled with volatile states and how they influence the outcome of hostilities within a country's borders. Editors Dan Miodownik and Oren Barak bring together top scholars to examine case studies in Afghanistan, Lebanon, Israel/Palestine, and Turkey in order to explore the manifold roles of external nonstate actors. By shedding light on these overlooked participants—whose causes and consequences can turn the tide of war—Nonstate Actors in Intrastate Conflicts provides a critical new perspective on the development and neutralization of civil war and ethnic violence.
Contributors: Oren Barak, Chanan Cohen, Robert A. Fitchette, Orit Gazit, Gallia Lindenstrauss, Nava Löwenheim, David Malet, Dan Miodownik, Maayan Mor, Avraham Sela, Gabriel (Gabi) Sheffer, Omer Yair.
—Dan Miodownik and Oren Barak with Maayan Mor and Omer Yair
Chapter 1. The 'Modern Sherwood Forest': Theoretical and Practical Challenges
—Oren Barak and Chanan Cohen
Chapter 2. Framing to Win: The Transnational Recruitment of Foreign Insurgents
Chapter 3. State, Society, and Transnational Networks: The Arab Volunteers in the Afghan War (1984-1990)
—Avraham Sela and Robert A. Fitchette
Chapter 4. A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Roles of Diasporas in Intrastate Conflicts
Chapter 5. Turkey's Dual Problem: Between Armenia and the Armenian Diaspora
Chapter 6. Turkey, the Kurds, and Turkey's Incursions into Iraq: The Effects of Securitization and Desecuritization Processes
—Gallia M. Lindenstrauss
Chapter 7. From a Militia to a Diasporic Community: The Changing Identity of the South Lebanese Army
Chapter 8. Domestic-Regional Interactions and Outside Intervention in Intrastate Conflicts: Insights from Lebanon
—Avraham Sela and Oren Barak
List of Contributors
"Miodownik, Barak, and the contributors to this outstanding volume remind us that, like other phenomena that involve human beings, we need to exercise caution, to be humble, and to remember the importance of context whenever we try to offer general explanations for conflict-related phenomena."—Ami Pedahzur, University of Texas at Austin
"The trenchant and elegant essays of Nonstate Actors in Intrastate Conflicts break new conceptual and empirical ground in the literature on civil wars. Focusing on foreign volunteers and diasporas in the Middle East, the authors offer important insights into how these actors can fuel or dampen internal conflict. For anyone interested in the region's patterns of political violence or, more generally, in transnational conflict processes, this volume constitutes essential reading."—Lars-Erik Cederman, Center for Comparative and International Studies in Zurich
"An invaluable volume that unveils the nuances of contemporary conflicts and fills major gaps in the literature. It is a must read for every student of conflicts in the Middle East and elsewhere."—Ami Pedahzur, University of Texas at Austin
"Nonstate Actors in Intrastate Conflicts takes a multidisciplinary approach and demonstrates that the questions raised are not only for political science but also for sociology, psychology, history, and anthropology."—Gloria Totoricaguena, Cenarrusa Foundation for Basque Culture
"In this fascinating book, Dan Miodownik and Oren Barak remind us that the phenomenon of "Foreign Fighters" who deploy to remote battlefields on their own is not new. However, at the same time they indicate that this phenomenon is becoming increasingly prevalent in a globalized world."—Ami Pedahzur, University of Texas at Austin