Selected by Choice magazine as an Outstanding Academic Title
Are the principles set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights truly universal? Or, as some have argued, are they derived exclusively from Western philosophic traditions and therefore irrelevant to many non-Western cultures? Should a state's claims to indigenous traditions, and not international covenants, determine the scope of rights granted to its citizens?
In his strong defense of the Declaration, Reza Afshari contends that the moral vision embodied in this and other agreements is a proper response to the abuses of the modern state. Asserting that the most serious violations of human rights by state rulers are motivated by political and economic factors rather than the purported concern for cultural authenticity, Afshari examines one particular state that has claimed cultural exception to the universality of human rights, the Islamic Republic of Iran.
In his revealing case study, Afshari investigates how Islamic culture and Iranian politics since the fall of the Shah have affected human rights policy in that state. He exposes the human rights violations committed by ruling clerics in Iran since the Revolution, showing that Iran has behaved remarkably like other authoritarian governments in its human rights abuses. For more than two decades, Iran has systematically jailed, tortured, and executed dissidents without due process of law and assassinated political opponents outside state borders. Furthermore, like other oppressive states, Iran has regularly denied and countered the charges made by United Nations human rights monitors, defending its acts as authentic cultural practices.
Throughout his study, Afshari addresses Iran's claims of cultural relativism, a controversial thesis in the intense ongoing debate over the universality of human rights. In prison memoirs he uncovers the actual human rights abuses committed by the Islamic Republic and the sociopolitical conditions that cause or permit them. Finally, Afshari turns to little-read UN reports that reveal that the dynamics of power between UN human rights monitors and Iranian leaders have proven ineffective at enforcing human rights policy in Iran. Critically analyzing the state's responses, Afshari shows that the Islamic Republic, like other oppressive states, has regularly denied and countered the charges made by UN human rights monitors, and when denials were patently implausible, it defended its acts as authentic cultural practices. This defense is equally unconvincing, since it lacked domestic cultural consensus.
A Note on Transliteration
Human Rights Discourse
Main Sources Used in This Book
Prison Memoirs and Their Significance
The Structure of the Book
Ch. 1. Islamic Cultural Relativism in Human Rights Discourse
Ch. 2. The Shiite Theocracy
Ch. 3. The Right to Life
Ch. 4. The Right to Freedom from Torture
Ch. 5. The Right to Liberty and Security of Person and to Freedom from Arbitrary Arrest
Ch. 6. The Right to a Fair Trial
Ch. 7. The Right to Freedom of Conscience, Thought, and Religion
Ch. 8. Renounce Your Conscience or Face Death: The Prison Massacre of 1988
Ch. 9. The Right to Freedom of Thought, Conscience, and Religion: Iranian Religious Minorities
Ch. 10. Official Responses to the United Nations: Countering the Charges of Violations in the 1980s
Ch. 11. Change of Tactics After Ayatollah Khomeini's Death
Ch. 12. The Special Representative's Meetings with the Judiciary and Security Officials
Ch. 13. The Right to Freedom of Opinion, Expression, and the Press
Ch. 14. The Most Revealing Cases of Violations of the Right to Freedom of Expression and the Press
Ch. 15. The Rights to Participate in the Political Life of the Country and to Peaceful Assembly and Association
Ch. 16. The Rights of Women
Ch. 17. UN Monitoring, 1984-2000: Mixed Results
"Using a vast array of government documents, newspapers, journals, memoirs of political prisoners, and reports issued by the Special Representative appointed by the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR), Reza Afshari provides a rich, sensitive, and very sympathetic presentation of the experiences and voices of victims of human-rights violations in Iran."—International Journal of Middle East Studies
"This book's powerful synthesis of data, narrative, and theory provides an important resource for those engaged in the study and furtherance of human rights."—Harvard Law Review
"The most exhaustive treatment of the record of human rights in postrevolutionary Iran. . . . This well-written and copiously researched volume will remain the standard work for years to come."—Choice